Writing Style for Research Reports

(HO 402 reports, BSB 499 reports, BSM 499 reports, etc.)

Overview

The following is a general overview of how most students in the Department of Sciences and Mathematics should structure their Research Reports. This style should be used for Independent Study research reports (BSB 499 and BSM 499), Honors College research reports (HO 402), lab reports in any BSB or BSM courses. If the course instructor tells you to use another styel or format, do so; but otherwise use the style and format described below.

Do not use this style for HO 401 Honor's Proposals. For those, go to the page on formating proposals.

The style you use is the style used by Research Reports ("Recent Research") sections of the online journal PLoS BIology. This is a top-tier journal that has been publishing since 2003.  It is freely available online at http://www.plosbiology.org.You should attempt to recreate as much of the structure and style of the PLoS Biology research reports as possible, unless your instructor or mentor specifically tells you to use another style based on another journal.

These instruction are divided into four general sections:

1. How to structure your research report. This tells you what the sections of your report should be and what to put in the various sections.

2. How to format your research report. This tells you how to lay out your sections, the proper way to indicate citations, the proper format for references, etc.

3. How to use citations. This tells you the ins and outs of using and formating citations.

4. How to list your references. This is how to format the references in the Reference section of your report.

 

1. How to Structure your Research Report

Your report should consist of seven sections in the following order. Each section (except the title itself) should be titled and set off from the preceding section.

Title

Abstract

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Methods and Materials

References

 

Title

This should be the shortest possible statement of your most significant result or conclusion. Don't be vague. Do not write a question. Your title is a statement of results, so you need to know what your results are before writing your title.

For instance, do not use something like the following for your title. None of these are statements of results.

The Nocturnal Behavior of Caterpillars

Determining the Behavior of Caterpillars

Are caterpillars active at night?

Instead, use something like the following as your title. This is a statement of actual results.

The caterpillar form of Danaus plexippus feeds mostly at night.

Write your title after you've written the rest of your paper. Sometimes you have to write everything up before you can pinpoint the most significant of your findings.

 

Abstract

Do this after you've written up the other five sections of your Research Report.

An abstract is a quick summary of the entire research project, putting the most emphasis on the results and the overall conclusion reached from the results. It is easier to summarise somthing you have already written, which is why the abstract should be left until after the other sections of the Research Report have been finished.

You should aim for an abstract of between 200 to 300 words. It should quickly and comprehensibly summarize the following information. Each of these points should be addressed in just one or two sentences each.  

·• what is the general area being investigated?

• what hypothesis you are testing?

• how did you gather your most important data?

• what were your most signficant results?

• what do your results tell you about your hypothesis?

 

Introduction

The Introduction should go from the general to the specific. It should begin by providing background information on the general area of your research and it should end with a brief description of your specific project and your most important findings.

Your Introduction should alert your readers to what they need to be looking for and paying attention to while going through the other sections. A research report is not a mystery that leaves the final answers until the end. You want to remind readers over and over again what main conclusions the data lead to.

The Introduction should usually be at least two-to-three pages long. It should provide the following information in more-or-less the following order.

• Background information on the general area of science being investigated

• Why the general area being investigated is important

• Background information on the specific area being investigated

• Background information on what research had already been done in the specific area being investigated

• Information on what this specific project might add to knowledge about the area being investigated and why this knowledge will be useful

• What specific hypothesis was being tested?

• How was that hypothesis tested?

• What were your most significant results?

• What did your results allow you to conclude about your hypothesis overall?

The information in the Introduction should be densely cited. Practically every sentence should cite at least one reference as the source of the background infornmation being presented.

 

Results

The Results section is usually a combination of text and figures. Ideally, the reader should be able to understand all the key results from reading just the text and none of the figures, or just the figures and none of the text. That is to say, the written description of the results should be comprehensible without looking at any of the figures, while the figures must be entirely comprehensible without reading any of the surrounding text other than the figure legend.

The Results section should be written in the past tense. The experiments have already been done. Most journals encourage authors to write Results sections in the passive voice. For example, "An agarose gel was run." Just about veryone other than science editors disparage the passive voice in most writing, so do not use it unless your Advisor or Instructor specifically requests you do. Instead use the active voice and the first person plural. For example, "We ran an agarose gel." Most research is a collaborative effort between the student, the principal investigator, and other colleagues in the lab, which is why plural pronouns are most appropriate.

All figures should have a figure legend below them that provides enough information for the figure to stand alone. Readers should be able to understand the data in the figure, how it was gathered, and what it means simply by looking at the figure and reading the figure legend. To see the kinds of details to include in figure legends, look at the figures in some representative articles. Note that figure legends are often quite lengthy. You need to provide a significant amount of information in the figure legend for the figure to comprehensible in the absence of reading the rest of the results section. Always start your figure legend with a title that summarizes the main conclusion you have drawn from the data in that one figure.

Here is an example of a Figure with an appropriate figure legend below it. It comes from Konrad et al. (2012) Social Transfer of Pathogenic Fungus Promotes Active Immunisation in Ant Colonies. PLoS Biol 10: e1001300.

wrstylefigex

Just because each figure needs to have a figure legend that makes it independently comprehensible does not mean that the text in the Results section should just consist of directions to look at the figures provided. The Results text should provide all the information needed to allow readers to understand all the important results without having to look at any of the figures. The text of the Results section should walk readers through each experiment, explaining why it was done, what the controls (if any) were and what the most significant results of that experiment were. The written Results do not have to report every piece of data – that is why the actual figures are there – instead the written Results should just report the data most important to understanding the eventual conclusions reached.

 

Discussion

The Discussion section is where you analyse what your results reveal. Discuss the following points:

• What can you conclude from the entirety of your results?

• Do your results support your hypothesis or not?

• Does the hypothesis need modifying in light of your results?

• How do your results compare to the results of other published research in this area?

• What further studies need to be done? What might they reveal?

Be sure to cite any references to other published work you are comparing your results to.

 

Methods and Materials

In this section, write up the protocols of all your experiments in sufficient detail that someone else could re-do any of your experiments based on just what you have written here.

Include volumes and concentrations for all biochemicals used.

Don't bother with unessential details, such as what brand of equipment you used. Unless someone could not do the same experiment with on a different brand, it information essential to doing the protocol.

Provide headers for each major protocol.

Write in the past tense, in full sentence and paragraph form.

 

References

This is just a list of any reference you cited somewhere in your text. Do not list a reference unless you actually cited it somewhere. Format the list in the style shown below, unless specifically told by your mentor or instructor to use another style.

 

2. How to Format your Research Report

The style you will use is the style used in the Research Articles ("Recent Research") sections of PLoS Biology.  You should attempt to recreate as much of the structure and layout of the PLoS Biology research articles as possible

  Written instructions from PLoS Biology for their research article authors are available here.

Here are some Research Articles published by PLoS Biology that you can use as guides.  Look at these articles in the pdf format to see the style you should use.  Don't look at the pages in the web or html format.

DNA Detection Using Recombinant Proteins by O. Piepenburg, C. Williams, D.L.. Stemple, & N.A. Armes.

Plant Volatiles, Rather than Light, Determine the Nocturnal Behavior of a Caterpillar by K. Shiojiri, R. Ozawa,  & J. Takabayashi.

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers by A. Dalecky, S. Ponsard, R.I. Bailey, C.  Pélissier, & D. Bourguet.

A Stress Surveillance System Based on Calcium and Nitric Oxide in Marine Diatoms by  A. Vardi, F. Formiggini, R. Casotti, A. De Martino, F. Ribalet, A. Miralto, & C. Bowler.

Intronic Binding Sites for hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H Proteins Stimulate Pre-mRNA Splicing by R. Martinez-Contreras, J. Fisette, F.H. Nasim, R. Madden, M. Cordeau, & B. Chabot

 

Here are some of the features you should pay attention to while formatting your research report.

Page Layout

Just use a single double-spaced column of text.  You should not divide your page into two columns of text.

Use one inch margins on all sides  of your page (top, bottom, right, left.)

Page numbers on upper left of the page

Make a title page consisting of just the article title in bold, left justified. Below that, put your name in regular font, left justified.  Under that, you can list any collaborators, such as your mentor and any senior lab personnel that supervised you, etc. Start the text proper on the next page.

Each page except the first page should have a running title in the page's header region consisting of author's name (Initials + surname), a colon, then a shortened title for the report (if your title is already short, you can use the whole title.)  E.g., If your research report title is, "The Properties That Are Essential to Propagating the [URE3] Prion "  You might use as a running title on each page, "IM Student:  Propagating [URE3]" 

 

Quotations

Do not use direct quotations.  As a general rule, scientific writing paraphrases everything and almost never uses direct quotes.  You must cite what you paraphrase, but you must not plagiarize what you paraphrase.

 

Figures

Figures should be incorporated in the middle of the text, not grouped together on separate pages at the end of the essay.  Figures should be incorporated into the text as close as possible to the first reference in the text to that figure.

Number your figures sequentially.  Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.

All figures need a figure legend underneath the figure.· The figure legend should start with a title sentence that summarises the most important result in that figure. The figure legend should provide enough information to be able to make sense of the figure without having to read the surrounding text.

Figures and figure legeneds should be boxed with straight lines to make it easier for the reader to know how to distinguish between the text and figures.  (This is not done in PLoS Biology research reports, but you should do it in your essays.)

See sample research articles from PLoS Biology for examples on how to incorporate figures and how to write figure legends.

 

3. Citations.

When to use citations

Every statement that is not common knowledge should be referenced with a citation. In a densely written essay, sometimes virtually every sentence in the essay ends in citations. Any piece of material that you didn't know before hand, that comes from some reference or text, must be referenced with a citation.

 

How to format citations

Use numbers in square parentheses for your citations. E.g., "[4]."  Do not put periods inside the parentheses.

Number your citations sequentially in the order they appear in the text. The first reference you cite is [1], the second reference you cite is [2], etc. If you cite the same reference more than once, use the same number each time. That is, once you decide a particular reference is "[7]", use [7] each time you cite it.

Citations usually go at the end of the sentence. E.g., "Strigolactones belong to the sesquiterpene lactones, which are believed to have a wide distribution in the plant kingdom [11]."

If, however, you have a sentence that contains information from more than one reference, you can put the citation in the middle of the sentence. E.g., "The Glomeromycota are considered the fifth fungal phylum [1] and their common ancestor dates back 600 million years [7], yet all of these fungi exist in symbiosis with phototrophic organisms."

 

How to refer to authors being cited

You can occasionally put the name of  the author(s) of a reference, followed by a citation, before summarising the information from that reference, but don't overdo this sort of thing as it begins to sound affected if used too much. Only use the authors' surnames, not their first names or even initials. Do not give them a title or description.

The following is an example of how to properly identify authors:

"Recently, Akiyama et al. [10] provided a major breakthrough in our understanding of the very early recognition events in this process."

The following are examples of how not to identify authors unless the striked-out sections are removed and the proper citation style inserted:

"Recently Dr. K. Akiyama and colleagues at Oksaka Prefecture University [10] provided..."

Rather, this should read, "Recently Akiyama et al. [10] provided..."

"Recently three scientists in Japan named Akiyama, Matsuzaki, and Hayashi  [10] provided..."

Again, this should read, "Recently Akiyama et al. [10] provided..."

 

Citations do not replace author names

If you are going to put citations in the middle of your sentences, the sentence must still be comprehensible when the citation is read out loud without the citation numbers. Do NOT leave out information that would identify the reference in the absence of the citation number. So, do not write a sentence like, "Recently [10] provided a major breakthrough...". Instead, write, ""Recently, Akiyama et al. [10] provided a major breakthrough..."

 

More than one citation in a single sentence

If a sentence contains information that is repeated in more than one reference, you indicate that more than one reference was used in the following manner:

Two references used:  [3,8]

Three or more consecutively numbered references used:  [5-9]

Three or more non-consecutively numbered references used:  [5, 8, 12, 20]

Note that if multiple references are cited, you always put the citation numbers in order from smallest to largest.

 

Entire paragraphs taken from a single reference

If you are using a lot of information within a single paragraph from a single reference, you need to cite that reference for each separate piece of information. Note that if you over-rely on a single reference, it becomes immediately apparent because your paragraphs cite the same source over and over again. In general, this is considered poor form and you should make an effort to find other sources of your information if your paragraph looks like this:

"The heart is located in the thoracic cavity [5]. It consists of four chambers [5]. The upper two chambers are called atria, and the lower two chambers are called ventricles [5]. The left atrium is separated from the left ventricle with a valve called the bicuspidal valve [5]."

Most of the quoted examples of proper citation style were taken from a PLoS Biology article by Brachmann and Parniske.

 

4. References

Reference Format

See some sample research articles from PLoS Biology for examples on how to lay out and format your references.

References should be listed at the end of your essay. There should be a left-justified sub-heading of "References" before your reference list begins.

References should be listed in numerical order by the citation number used to identify them in the text.

All authors should be listed by initials and surname, unless there are more than five authors, in which case only list the first five authors followed by "et al."  Separate different authors with commas. Do not separate surnames and initials with commas. Do not use "and" before the last author.

The full title of the reference should be listed. Do not put the title in quotes.

Use the accepted abbreviations for journal titles. Do not use periods after the abbreviations in the title. For instance the official abbreviation for the Journal of Biological Chemistry is J Biol Chem, not J. Biol. Chem. Note that some journal titles aren't abbreviated (e.g., Nature), but most are.

If you don't know the accepted abbreviation, look up the article in PubMed.   The PubMed citation will give the journal title in the form of its accepted abbreviation. However, do not just copy the entire PubMed citation. They use a different style that we do; just use PubMed to determine the accepted journal abbreviation (and, if needed, information on the authors, year, title, volume, and pages -- just reformat them to fit our deparmental style.)

The second and third lines of a reference should be indented to line up with the beginning of the text on the first line.

 

Journal Articles

For journal articles, start with the authors' names last name first, followed by initials not separated by any commas and without periods after each initial. Use commas only to separate the different names. Do not put an "and" before the last name. If there are five or less authors, use all the authors names. If there are more than five authors, list the first five, followed by "et. al."

After the authors names, give the publication year in round brackets. No period before or after the year.

Then give the journal title.  Accepted abbreviations should be used for journal titles. Put a period after the article title. Give the volume number of the journal, but do not give the issue number or date. After the volume number, put a colon and give the beginning and end pages of the article, but don't use "pp" or "pg".

For journal articles that are available both online and in print (hard copy), always format your reference as if you had obtained the article from the print version of the journal. So, even if you go online to read a Nature article, you still format it so the citation includes the journal volume and page numbers, and you do not include the URL or the date accessed. If your online copy of the journal article does not provide the information you need in your citation, look the article up in PubMed. The PubMed listing will give the volume number, the page numbers of the print copy, etc. Use that information in your citation, even if your online copy wasn't formatted that way.

For journal articles that are only available online, the online journal will still provide both a volume number for the article and  page numbers for the article. Format your reference in the same style as for an article from a print journal with authors, year, title, journal name, volume and page numbers. Do not put the URL or the date accessed info.

Here are two examples of how to format references that are journal articles:

5. Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE (2000) Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician. Science 289: 1920–1921.

6. Weismann D, Hartvigsen K, Lauer N, Bennett KL, Scholl HP et al. (2011) Complement factor H binds malondialdehyde epitopes and protects from oxidative stress. Nature 478: 76-81.

 

Web Pages

For web pages that are online journal articles, treat the article as if it were a regular journal article, as described in the Journal Articles section above.

For web pages that aren't online journal articles, you need to provide the author's name (if known) , date of last revision in parentheses, title of document, title of complete work (if relevant), URL in angle brackets, and very importantly the date (year month day, in that order) when you actually viewed/read the page. This last information is the  "date of access" and is formatted "Accessed year month day."

The formatting of your citation will be some variation of this:

7. Daneholt B  (2006)  Advanced Information: The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine:  RNA Interference. ≤http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2006/advanced.html≥ Accessed 2012 August 26.

This style of formatting web page citations is a modified version of the basic format suggested by the Council for Biological Editors (CBE).

If the author, document title, and date of last revision are not written on the web page itself (look at the top and at the very bottom of the page; look at the title on the top of your browser window), try right-clicking on the page on choosing "Page Info". This won't work with all browsers, but is worth trying. If some of the information (such as author) just is not available, leave it out and go to the next item in the list of information to include in the reference. But always include the page URL and the date accessed.

If you cannot find an author, your reference listing might look like this:

8. (2006) RNA Interference Fact Sheet. ≤http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2006/advanced.html≥ Accessed 2012 August 20.

 

Books

For information taken from books, give the authors of the book -- last names first followed by their initials without periods. Only put commas between different authors' names. Follow this with the year published in round parentheses. Then put the title of the book.

Give the page number where the information you are citing can be found in the book. Don't give the total number of pages for the book. If the article is from a chapter in a book where every chapter is by different authors, give the chapter title, the book title, the editors of the book, and the page numbers of the chapter (use "pp" to indicate chapter pages.)  Give the city where the book was published (but do not give the state), followed by a colon, followed by the name of the publishing company.

Here is an example of how to format a book in your reference list.

8. Chase JM, Leibold MA (2003) Ecological niches: Linking classical and contemporary approaches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 212.

 

Chapter in a book

If your source is a chapter in a book, where each chapter is written by different authors, first give the names of all the authors -- last names first followed by their initials without periods. Only put commas between different authors' names. Follow this with the year published in round parentheses.

Then put  "In:" followed by the editors of the book, followed by a comma and the word "editors". Then give the title of the book. Finish by giving  the city where the book was published (but do not give the state), followed by a colon, followed by the name of the publishing company.

Here is an example of how a chapter in a book looks in the reference section:

9. Simberloff D (1997) Eradication. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC, editors. Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Washington (D. C.): Island Press. pp. 221–228.




 You might want to look through the PLoS Biology archives to find an article similar in theme or content to the report you are writing, to give you a better idea of how to deal with some of the formatting issues you will be encountering. 

Return to Writing Style Overview page

written by: Ross E Whitwam

last updated: 26 August 2012